Saturday, November 28, 2015

Is 'psychosis' a substitute for 'schizophrenia'?

Huw Green in his article in Social Theory & Health mentions that Mary Boyle reluctantly adopts the word 'psychosis' as a substitute for 'schizophrenia' in order to discuss the topic of psychiatric diagnosis she has chosen to address. He uses this situation to reinforce his view that talk about psychiatric diagnosis is inevitably a form of communication. I have similarly criticised Mary for attempting to abandon psychiatric diagnosis completely (see my article). Psychiatric diagnosis needs to be recognised for what it is - an attempt to describe psychological states. It is, therefore, related to unobservables and not describable in a natural scientific sense. There will inevitably be limitations in the application of psychiatric diagnosis, whatever way symptoms and signs are grouped and conceptualised. Psychiatric practice needs to acknowledge this state of uncertainty. The concepts of mental illness do not need to be abandoned for this reason alone.

It's not surprising, therefore, that Mary reintroduces a notion of psychosis, however much she may think that the concept of schizophrenia is unscientific. But, neither is psychosis an absolute concept. Even the BPS attempt to explain psychosis and schizophrenia in everyday language still uses the terms (see previous post). The usefulness or validity of terms like 'psychosis' and 'schizophrenia' may depend on the ability to identify certain patterns between different patient presentations (see another previous post).

For example, the experience of hearing voices can be a dissociative symptom. This situation may have been used as a rather superficial argument for the abandonment of the diagnosis of schizophrenia but it does create a category of 'dissociative voice hearing'. As Green says, if the new catgory provides "more clinical information than the DSM, there is a chance that [it] will be adopted and applied instead, or even incorporated into that manual". Dissociation, in fact, does feature as a category already in DSM, including dissociative identity disorder (see changes made in DSM-5). It's a weakness of the BPS report, mentioned above, that it makes no attempt to discuss the difference between psychosis/schizophrenia and dissociation. The point I'm making is that it is a meaningful discussion to have and we do need to have words to communicate about it.

As Green concludes, "no psychiatric language is able to 'do justice' to the particulars of any given case". However, it serves a function in giving rise to a general form of pragmatic knowledge. DSM-5 has failed in its attempt to move from symptom-based diagnoses to aetiologically-based diagnoses using the latest advances from neurosciences and genetics (see previous post). We need to make the most of this failure (which should have been predicted anyway) to have a better diagnostic understanding of terms like psychosis and schizophrenia, if they have any meaning at all (see another previous post).


cobweb said...

I am using the link in a rather tortuous way to raise awareness of articles published in the BJPsyche Bulletin December 2015..mmie I am using Google to publish a comment as googling peoples' private lives is what is proposed by some as being an acceptable probability

The Special Articles this month are deliberating the supposed ethics of psychiatrists using google/facebook/u tube/twitter etc -to pry into the lives of people they are treating in order to gain more information about them. Some high-minded debate about the rights to invade the human right to privacy sees some getting their knickers in a real twist - suggestions that users should be consulted..why were they not before this rather covert way of behaving by the authors of these papers and the college of psychiatrists published what amounts to one of the most shabby collections of articles they have published yet
Obviously considering that psychiatrists and lets not forget the admin staff and trainees involved are as human as anybody else. some will already be following individuals they have an interest in - when users or the public indulge their curiosity it is seen as unacceptable. even stalking..if this proposal by some of the authors of the special articles is given approval they will be doing nothing but the same but under cover of professionalism. - in a so called democracy this is a shameful idea.

Mrs. Patricia said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Unknown said...

I honestly want to say that CONSUMMO is a scam, I contacted that man Justin his email is I transferred 2600$ for product and the n 2600$ for shipping to someone whose name is Martiza her personal bank account. Then he told me he has problem shipping it, and I have to pay more money because he will ship it from Africa. I refused, and asked return my money. First he sad he will return only for CONSUMMO partial refund. Overall he refused to give my money back, and he did not sent me my package.
Also he never gave me his telephone number, nor the address and telephone number of his clinic. Every time I asked this information he just disregard. I payed cash 5200$ and I got nothing in return. You are free to contact me, if you have questions about this scam. I will forward you all his emails.

DBDouble said...

Sorry to hear this. Can you complain and get the business closed. I’ve deleted his comment.

Unknown said...

I do not think it is possible to close it, I think that clink does not exist at all. It is just website, We were so disparate to find help, and just got used over our situation. But I saved all emails and bank account info where I transferred money. So please if you are despaired do more research first, and find people who actually will talk to you, before you will be buying something, no meter how promising it looks.

Mark said...

I saw your comment, I got cheated over CANSUMMO. 6000$ I sent to those people a year ago. Guess what that BS never came. And my money were gone to, nothing was returned. Please I hope someone will stop this CONSUMMO BS, we mentally ill people. Life is already hurts us. Why those people also are trying cheating us and taking our money. We just have hope to get better, and those people cheat us. It is very cruel game

Mark said...

Thank you for sharing, hope no one else will repeat my stupidity, a
Do not trust CONSUMMO it is scam, I am agree

Briona Kennedy said...

I have already acquire CONSUMMO before coming across all your comments today. CONSUMMO is genuine mental and herbal treatment...I had though I was scammed before. The company was having series of problem in the past with mental organisation registration which I believe they have now resolved and everyone is now happy. Most of the negative comments here was written when the company was down. It's up and running. The only journey is the journey within. If you've not receive your CONSUMMO package, try to send a message to and it will get to you

Mark said...

Whoever you claim you are Briona.
I am Yanush, a real one. I say CONSUMMO is scam. I placed my comments earlier. Someone from your bandit group, used my name and sad that I received CONSUMMO. I never did, NEVER got my money back. CONSUMMO is scam. You cheat people.
STOP this scam. PLEASE

Mark said...

I want to post to the person name Duncan Double. I believe you are the owner of this website. Please, stop those comments from people who advertise CONSUMMO, this is scam. They take money from people, but nothing they give in return. Medication does not exist. In meter of fact, they used my name. And placed comment like I did receive this medicine, and pretend as I was giving my apologies to Patricia.

In the reality I am not sorry, I never got this medication. They luyed to me and other people. There is someone named ALM, it is true person, who was cheated like me.
Duncan Please stop this scam, please restrict those people who cheat mentally ill people. Please do not allow them to cheat more.

Mark said...

Those scams for CONSUMMO placed comment that I bought that BS for my daughter. I do not have daughter, WHAT A SCAMS. Please I feel so stupid, not only I send them money, they turned me in to a joke, faked my name, gave apologies.
I AM NOT SORRY. And I will go to police and report all information about CONSUMMO, sense this scam is not stopping. Maybe police will block their website.
This is unbelievable.

Briona Kennedy said...

My message is directed to Yanush and Alm for their negative comments about CONSUMMO. I don't know who you are, how genuine or real you are but try to contact Dr. Justin directly through, if you have not receive your package, CONSUMMO is real. Our prime purpose in this life is to help others. And if you can’t help them, at least don’t hurt them. A lot of mental patients are passing through serious and unimaginable pain daily and you come here to deceive and convince the masses. His excellence is supposed to be commended, not envied. We are in the era committing silent crimes against humanity. There is nothing more deceptive than an obvious fact. I will never support scam, never. Check the arrival details: with the tracking no: BUUMY6B5MC9A5, I’m sad and disappointed for your comments. Strong people don't put others down...Why do we destroyed each other’s dreams?

Mark said...

Maybe Justin will provide address for his clinic. I will visist him, or his telephone number. I knowdest he never shows this information.
Because he is scam. And your traking number is fake. Justin sad he will use USPS, UPS or DHL. And UEA does prohibit any liquid shipping.
You can continue with your scam. You might cheat more people. But I hape they will read those comments. And believe me.

Mark said...

And as I sad There is lady name Amina, she was scammed to. I am going to Police, and those people are joining me. Whoever you are.

Unknown said...

Yanush, Stephan (incorrectly as Shtepan), Amina seem to be one person disguising as three, your thoughts, thinking and self expression have been very fragmented, disconnected and conflicted which makes me now realize what's truly going on with you personally. You can't even make a correct sentence. You are my biggest waste of time. I'm not by any mean advertising or convincing anyone to get CONSUMMO but speaking for myself, extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence, which makes me reveal my personal delivery details. Treat yourself soon, perhaps you have a borderline

Mark said...

One of your people already called me crazy before. I am not the one who scams people, and trying to take money from those who are ill. You do together with those who sell this fake medicine.
I am from Poland English is not my first language. So sorry I do not spell correct.
I am not the one who faked my statements saying that I apologized to that scam lady Patricia. You did, or one of your bandits did.

CONSUMMO is scam hope other people read my statement. And never give you money.

Unknown said...

Hi Yanush
Do not get upset. I was scammed by Consummo. I send 5200$ for this medicine. When I complained Justin threatened me, he told me that he will come after me. Also I placed my comments on other posts, those people called me crazy also.
I saved his emails. So I still have this prove. Those people use fake tracking numbers. I got one like that. Which states that package was send to different city, and does not even has my name.
Unfortunately, CONSUMMO people use our pain and illness to get money out our families. Because we are in pain. They are abusing this power, and trust. So unfortunate.

I hope that other people will see our complaints, and will not trust them. Just as a reference. I do have all records with my conversation with Justin. If anyone will ask, I am glad to revile this scam.

Thank you for sharing your experience. Hope it will work, and maybe this abuse will be stopped.

JOJO said...

Hey ALM,

Could you please share your emails to the following adddress
Because of both of you claiming opposite things, only your email communication will serve as a proof.

we are not mentally ill, it is a technology.


Unknown said...

I did send you email
What are you trying to prove. Send this man money, and you will see yourself what is the truth.
By the way I did respond to your email.
So And I never will stop saying, that I was scammed by CONSUMMO.
That is all i can say.
If you are a real person, hope my comments will save your money, and trouble.

Unknown said...

I wish at a time I was sending him money, someone would worn me. But no one did.

Unknown said...

To you JOJO
If you are trying to get my personal information. I will not do that. Nice try. I will state again. COSUMMO is scam. I do not need to prove anything. He took my money and now all those wierd people are sending me emails. Telling how they do get this medication and how I am wrong. But in the reality, my money are gone, and that potion I never saw it. So prove it yourself if you do not believe me.
And tell that man Justin, I will post video as my testimony.
Se how he is going to withstand that.
Hope no one else will get cought in this scam.

Unknown said...

I am in initial phase for treatment i have not paid for it yet received email by justin for 1687 dollars, what you guyz suggest, is it totally scan of marketing tactics.

Unknown said...

My heart goes out to everyone who have or cares for a mentally ill person. My daughter was diagnosed with schizophrenia 10years ago, She had gone through several bouts of depression, delusion and hallucinations. She always think CIA agents were spying on her, FBI agents looking to bring her down, everyone is plotting or trying to kill her, which weren't real; over 10 hospitalizations in just four years. Coping with schizophrenia wasn’t easy. She had attempted suicide and all treatment has done little for her improvement. We've finally benefited from some real dedicated support group of people with natural treatment and a small number of friends and family that knew and loved us. Dr (Mrs) Vanessa treatment has turned her life around, she is now without a symptom. I don’t want people to feel that suicide is their only option, know you are loved, you are valuable, you are worth more than your darkness. Reach out and get the support you need and deserve from suicide prevention resources page or email: to start your natural treatment, Try to understand the blackness, lethargy, hopelessness, and loneliness they’re going through. Be there for them when they come through the other side. Our hope is that one-day schizophrenia-related brain disorder receives respect, appropriate treatment and an opportunity to live a meaningful and satisfying life in a compassionate community free of discrimination.

Mathew Smith said...

Hey!! Thanks for the post, It is good to know that people get awarded about mental health disorders. Mental health disorder like depression really ruin your life completely.
I know this because I gonna through this horrible state of mind. To overcome the depression I searched for the best Counselling in Fulham. Finally, I get rid of it. Hey! you have shared really a great post.

Dr. Justin Rodwen Hill said...

My attention has been drawn to a statement made by some people that CONSUMMO is a scam.  I like to state here clearly that nothing could be further from the truth than these unfortunate remarks. They are just about three patients who have contacted me whose herbal medicine was a bit delayed by custom and took time before it was returned to me, I have sent several messages to them for me to either refund the money or resend the package, one of them have responded and he later got the package. It would be heartless to hit people who are already down on the ground with this horrible diagnosis. I wouldn't have seen this but a concerned patient sent me this link, and a lot of wonderful patients suffering/died because we are in a world where people are surrounded by ignorance and have no opportunity to try real natural treatment. Those that are currently on my medication for this year alone are more than a thousand. I am committed to helping the Mental Health Society in any way I can. Nothing would be more absurd than having to perpetrate evil against mental patients, their families or their caregivers. I am a very trustworthy honest man and will never say what I can't offer. For the two patients that haven't received their package, send a message, for either a complete refunding or reshipping. My herbal medicine is now approved worldwide and no longer affected by custom because of its obvious efficacy. No matter where on earth you live. We are the leaves of one branch, the drops of one sea, the flowers of one garden.